This article originally published on the Corporate Law Insider blog of Bourque Law Firm, P.C. Reprinted with permission, all rights reserved.

Letters of intent can be a useful tool when entering into negotiations to buy or sell  a business or property.  However, many people who sign letters of intent have no idea that they may be creating a binding contract upon which they can be sued if things don’t work out.

This Corporate Law Insider edition provides businesses and individuals with guidance in handling letters of intent, memorandums of understanding, and similarly labled documents.

If you do not want to be bound, it had better say that clearly in anything you sign

Many people believe that a document entitled “letter of intent” cannot be a binding contract.  Such a belief is mistaken.

If a party does not wish to be bound, it should include clear and unmistakable language in whatever it signs stating that nothing is intended to create a contract or obligation between the parties.  There is no such thing as overkill when including such language, which can and should be repeated for emphasis.

Conversely, if a letter of intent fails to contain clear non-binding language, but instead contains language where parties discuss an “agreement” or state that they shall be “obligated” to do something, they may very well have entered into a binding contract.  Words such as “accept,” “offer,” “agree,” or “contract” similarly imply that a potential binding obligation (i.e. contract)  exists.

ANY language implying or identifying an obligation or duty on behalf of a party can create a fact issue as to whether an agreement has in fact been reached.  The scope of the contract will depend on the wording in the letter of intent and the surrounding circumstances.  Thus, one should carefully read all letters of intent, memorandums of understanding, and other documents before signing them.

Language regarding “Negotiating in good faith”

When parties state that they “shall negotiate in good faith,”  they may well have bound themselves contractually to do just that — even if there is other non-binding language in their document.  As an Arizona court noted:

“[I]n certain circumstances an agreement to negotiate in good faith [can] be a valid contract where there is express language that conveys as much. In  Rennick v. O.P. T.I.O.N. Care Inc., an agreement containing a non-binding clause was found to contain a contract to negotiate in good faith where the express language of the agreement obligated the parties. The agreement contained the language that the parties agreed to “continue good faith discussion directed toward the creation of formal written contract that, upon approval by the board of Director [sic] of each party, will be executed to establish the following arrangements.” Therefore, an otherwise non-binding agreement could create an obligation to negotiate in good faith where the parties included such language.”

Parties should also beware of language which allows the parties to “terminate” negotiations only after a period of time or after a particular event.  Such language implies that there is no general right to terminate negotiations.  Thus, I encourage clients who do not wish to be bound to negotiate to include the following language in their LOIs: “Any party to this letter of intent may terminate negotiations at any time for any reason.”

Where a contract to negotiate in good faith is proven, the measure of damages is typically those suffered in relying on the defendant to negotiate in good faith. This can include the plaintiff’s out-of-pocket costs in conducting the negotiations, which can be substantial if negotiations extend over a significant period of time and entail significant due diligence and other work.


I have litigated letter of intent disputes and they are not pretty.  Battling in court over one’s business or property is painful and expensive.  Risks and emotions run high when relationships go wrong.

So, the next time you see a letter of intent with any potentially binding language, do not sign it unless you wish to be bound.  Instead, contact counsel to revise the document or, alternatively, scrap it and create an appropriate letter of intent that suits your needs given the particular potential transaction.

Art Borque, Esq., is an AV rated attorney with 24 years of experience.  His Phoenix, Arizona, practice deals with Employment and Labor Law, Commercial and Tort Litigation, and Dispute Resolution.


This article originally published in the REALTOR®Mag Daily Real Estate News,Thursday, June 11, 2015.

Home sellers today are twice as likely to choose an offer based on emotion rather than money alone compared to the years prior to the recession, according to a new survey of more than 1,500 home sellers released by Coldwell Banker Real Estate LLC, which analyzed real estate trends in the past decade.

Since 2014, more than one in four sellers nationally sold their home in less than two weeks. But despite the higher prevalence of multiple bids and offers above asking price, sellers judge an offer based more on emotions than the extra money, the study found.

“There is a notable difference in seller psychology today compared to 10 years ago,” says Budge Huskey, president and chief executive officer for Coldwell Banker Real Estate LLC. “The national housing market has changed significantly over the past decade, and seller sentiments have evolved. Home sellers often want to feel emotionally connected to the buyer. These findings should give solace to buyers in highly competitive markets who may present a compelling story as to why they should be the next owners of the home.”

Before the recession, about 20 percent of sellers accepted an offer based on emotion rather than money alone. However, from 2006 to now, the number has climbed to 36 percent.

“While housing has clearly steadied, we have all wondered how the recession might impact home sellers, and we now have additional insight,” Huskey said. “During this recovery, sellers are more aware that their home, which played such a critical role in their lives, will have the same emotional impact on the next occupants. Today, they have more information than ever and want to more actively participate in the sale of their home.”

During the recession and its aftermath, more sellers accepted the first offer they received – a notable difference from today. Now, only 46 percent of home sellers accept the first offer they receive – which marks a 22 percent decrease, the survey found.

Source: “How Home Sellers Have Changed Over the Past Decade: Results of the Coldwell Banker Seller Survey,” Coldwell Banker (June 10, 2015)


Canadian Homebuyers Investing Heavily in Arizona Properties

July 1, 2015

The National Association of REALTORS® (NAR) reports that Canadians spent about 20% less on all U.S. properties year-to-year from April to March, but still accounted for $11.2 billion dollars in total value. Arizona is second only to Florida with Canadians investing almost $1.8 billion in the Grand Canyon State. In its 2015 Profile of Home […]

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List of FAA-Approved Drone Operators Available on

June 29, 2015

This article by Stephanie A. Spear, Erin Stackley and Russell Riggs originally appeared in the June 2015 Realtor Party News. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has begun to issue waivers for some drone operators to legally and commercially operate. Without a waiver from the FAA, commercial use of drones is prohibited. The waivers are issued […]

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Arizona REALTOR® Safety Series Featuring Paula Monthofer – Episode Three

June 24, 2015

In episode three of our Arizona REALTOR® Safety Series, AAR First Vice President Paula Monthofer offers tips and advice on being alert and staying safe! An important part of REALTOR® Safety is being Systematized. That means implementing a system in communicating and working with clients and sticking with it from first contact all the way […]

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MARKET REPORT: Boomerang Buyers to Drive Up Phoenix Prices

June 22, 2015

The number of buyers shopping for homes in the Phoenix real estate market in April continued to increase. But, the supply of houses for sale was still falling, especially those costing $200,000 and less, according to the monthly real estate report from the W. P. Carey School of Business. Michael Orr, director of the Center […]

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